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Revels of Natchez was appointed by the predominantly Republican Wwomen Legislature in to serve out the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis and became the first black to serve in the U. Bruce of Bolivar County, Mississippi, in was the second black sent to the U. Senate and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.

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If there is a candidate slating process, whether the members of the minority group have been denied access to that process. This act sent a chilling message to their victims: Klansmen thought they could murder with impunity, because local authorities were unwilling or unable to stop them.

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The act also established election supervisors for cities or towns with more than 20, inhabitants. Perkins v.

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The extent to which voting in the elections of the state or political subdivision is Missisxippi polarized. The Court upheld the poll tax and found it violated neither the 14th nor the 19th Amendments.

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Thus, it was void under the 15th Amendment to the Constitution. Stewart v. The court also rejected a county reapportionment scheme that diluted black voting strength and adopted another plan that created a majority-black voting-age population in four out of the five districts. The Voting Rights Act Litigation proved to be a useful weapon in the battle to destroy discriminatory voting procedures and practices. The Court then delineated a of factors to be considered in making such a determination, including lack of access to the slating process; unresponsiveness of legislators to the needs of the minority community; a tenuous policy underlying the preference for multimember or at-large voting; the existence of past discrimination; or the existence of large districts, majority vote requirements, and anti-single-shot blxck provisions.

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A violation of subsection a is established if, based on the totality of the circumstances, it is shown that the political processes leading to nomination or election in the state or political subdivision are not equally open to participation by members of a class of citizens protected by subsection a in that its members have less opportunity than other members of the electorate to participate in the political process and to elect representatives of their choice.

The Court reviewed its section 5 cases and determined that there are four contexts in which section 5 applies: 1 changes involving the manner of voting, 2 changes in candidacy requirements and qualifications, 3 changes in the composition of the electorate that may vote, and 4 changes affecting the creation or abolition of an elective office.

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Townsend, U. To kill a Negro they do not deem murder.

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The Court also noted that the ultimate goal of section 2 is equality of proportionality, not a guarantee of electoral success for minority preferred candidates of whatever race. Beer v. Dyer v. Jason Phillips, Ph.

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Inhowever, the Court vacated its earlier decision based upon its holdings in Shaw v. At that time, African Americans represented a majority of registered voters in Mississippi. The Court held that all of the changes, i. Gingles, U.

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It protected the civil rights of former slaves by offering them legal counsel. On one level, the Black Codes made a political statement.

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The Court held that the Voting Rights Act should be given the broadest scope possible and that all the above changes were subject to the section 5 preclearance requirements. Carr, U. In time these violent tactics ruined democracy in Mississippi and throughout the South.

On another, deeper level, these codes revealed an economic struggle between former masters and freed slaves. Quilter, U.

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One of the first necessities of Reconstruction was to define the legal status of former slaves. Freedmen desired something else. The new language of the statute read: No voting qualification or prerequisite to voting or standard, practice, or procedure shall be imposed or applied by any State or political subdivision in a manner which in a denial or abridgment of the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on of race or color.

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They split the crop. The Court assumed, but did not decide, that compliance with section 2 could be a compelling state interest.

Depending on your perspective, Reconstruction was the best or worst time, an age of political wisdom or foolishness, a time of heartfelt belief or profound doubt, a brilliant period Mississippj limitless possibilities or blsck darkest chapter of our past. The elements of proof necessary for a section 2 claim after the amendments were later clarified by the Supreme Court.

Allen v. This act mandated that any citizen, otherwise qualified to vote, shall be entitled to vote without distinction to race, color, or condition of servitude.

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Johnson v. Where the commissioners had ly controlled the moneys for road repairs, maintenance, and improvement for their own district, the resolution provided that all such moneys be maintained in a common for the use of the entire county.

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McKeithen, F. When 10 percent of the voters in a state had taken the oath of loyalty, the state would be permitted to form a legal government and re the Union. In time, when neither whites nor blacks could achieve their economic aims, landowners and laborers compromised by creating the sharecropping system. The district court, relying primarily on Colegrove v.

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The state of South Carolina challenged these provisions on the grounds that they exceeded blqck powers of Congress and encroached on an area reserved to the states. Payment of the tax was required in order to register and vote in any election. On remand from Shaw v.

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Black and white Mississippians grappled with a devastated economy and a new social structure. The Court further held that compliance with the act often requires the use of racial considerations in drawing district lines, and the Constitution does not prevent the state from deliberately creating or preserving black majorities in particular districts in order to comply with section 5.

The Supreme Court reversed, holding that the purpose of section 5 was to ensure that there was no retrogression in the position of minorities. At first, the courts declined to become involved in an area viewed either as part of the political domain or under the exclusive control of the states, but later they began to adjudicate these womdn.